# Chapter 15: Sampling

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1. Match the correct term and definition:

Terms

• Total population
• Sample
• Representativeness
• Generalizability
• Transferability
• Data saturation
• Homogeneous sample
• Heterogeneous sample
• Probability sampling
• Non-probability sampling
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified random sampling
• Cluster sampling
• Convenience sampling
• Purposive sampling
• Quota sampling
• Snowball sampling
• Theoretical sampling
• Systematic sampling
• Power calculation

Definitions

• The study participants correspond to the wider population.
• Participants are recruited because they have ongoing or prior experience of the phenomena the researcher is exploring.
• The researcher pre-specifies the required characteristics of sample to ensure the final sample includes a certain number with each characteristic.
• When data collection and analysis does not reveal any new findings and therefore recruitment of further participants is unnecessary.
• The researcher recruits the most readily available participants who meet the study’s inclusion criteria.
• Potential participants have an equal or random chance of being invited to take part or being allocated to groups (experimental or control group).
• The total population is divided into sub-groups from each of which the sample is selected randomly.
• A sample with a wide range of characteristics.
• The researcher judges which potential participants to invite to take part in a study.
• The entire population from which the sample is drawn.
• The study findings can be applied to the wider population.
• The researcher specifically recruits participants who will help them to refine or challenge the theory they are developing.
• The most basic type of probability sampling. Each potential participant has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
• A sample with a single or narrow range of characteristics.
• Sampling which involves the identification of potential participants through referrals from earlier participants.
• The study total population is divided into sub-groups which are then selected randomly.  Either the whole sub-group participates in the study or participants may be randomly selected from the sub-group.
• Combines probability and non-probability sampling whereby a list is made of all participants in the population. The first participant is selected randomly and from then on, every nth participant is selected.
• A method for identifying the minimum number of participants required to measure the impact of the independent variable.
• The extent to which the findings can be applied to other similar populations in other similar settings.
• A selection from, a sub-group or a sub-set of the total population.

• Total population - The entire population from which the sample is drawn.
• Sample - A selection from, a sub-group or a sub-set of the total population.
• Representativeness - The study participants correspond to the wider population.
• Generalizability - The study findings can be applied to the wider population.
• Data saturation - When data collection and analysis does not reveal any new findings and therefore recruitment of further participants is unnecessary.
• Transferability - The extent to which the findings can be applied to other similar populations in other similar settings.
• Homogeneous sample - A sample with a single or narrow range of characteristics.
• Heterogeneous sample - A sample with a wide range of characteristics.
• Probability sampling - Potential participants have an equal or random chance of being invited to take part or being allocated to groups (experimental or control group).
• Non-probability sampling - Participants are recruited because they have ongoing or prior experience of the phenomena the researcher is exploring.
• Simple random sampling - The most basic type of probability sampling. Each potential participant has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
• Stratified random sampling - The total population is divided into sub-groups from which the sample is selected randomly.
• Cluster sampling - The study total population is divided into sub-groups which are then selected randomly.  Either the whole sub-group participates in the study or participants may be randomly selected from the sub-group.
• Convenience sampling - The researcher recruits the most readily available participants who meet the study’s inclusion criteria.
• Purposive sampling - The researcher judges which potential participants to invite to take part in a study.
• Quota sampling - The researcher pre-specifies the required characteristics of sample to ensure the final sample includes a certain number with each characteristic.
• Snowball sampling - Sampling which involves the identification of potential participants through referrals from earlier participants.
• Theoretical sampling - The researcher specifically recruits participants who will help them to refine or challenge the theory they are developing.
• Systematic sampling - Combines probability and non-probability sampling whereby a list is made of all participants in the population. The first participant is selected randomly and from then on, every nth participant is selected.
• Power calculation - A method for identifying the minimum number of participants required to measure the impact of the independent variable.