SAGE Journal Articles
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Article 1: Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., Hoshino, N. (2014). Two languages in mind: bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 159-163. doi:10.1177/0963721414528511
- A review article describing three recent major discoveries about how bilinguals represent and process information in their languages, and how that interacts with more general cognitive abilities and brain networks.
- Identify the three major discoveries about bilingualism discussed in the article. Which one interests you the most, and why?
- Evaluate whether each of these discoveries apply to relatively balanced, proficient bilinguals or also unbalanced bilinguals. Identify specific evidence from the article for your conclusions.
- How do you think adding a third or fourth language to the mix may affect these discoveries? Which ones would still be evident?
Article 2: Engel de Abreu, P. M. J., Cruz-Santos, A., Tourinho, C. J., Martin, R., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingualism enriches the poor: enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children. Psychological Science, 23, 1364-1371. doi: 10.1177/0956797612443836
- An empirical study indicating that bilingualism is related to only some cognitive benefits, and this benefit is resilient in a low-income, minority group.
- What is the main research question presented in the introduction? For the secondary question, what are the two hypotheses about executive functioning?
- Describe the two groups of bilinguals compared. What language(s) did they speak, and what language were they tested in for the experiment?
- Based on Table 3 and the text, which cognitive measures indicated representation ability, and which indicated control ability? Which group was better for which ability?
- Why do you think the low-income bilingual children showed a cognitive control benefit? What do you think would happen if this experiment were done again with similar children who had not immigrated to the new country?
Article 3: Montrul, S., & Foote, R. (2014). Age of acquisition interactions in bilingual lexical access: A study of the weaker language of L2 learners and heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(3), 274-303. doi: 10.1177/1367006912443431
- An empirical study investigating lexical access of bilinguals’ weaker language. The age of acquisition for particular words was a stronger factor than overall global age of acquisition for the weaker language.
- Describe the two groups of bilinguals investigated. Which was their weaker language and why? What was each group’s global age of acquisition for the weaker language?
- Explain why the authors’ propose that age of acquisition for words should matter. Relate this idea to the Revised Hierarchical Model in the textbook.
- Describe the main results for the lexical decision task and the translation decision task. Did the results support the original hypotheses? How so, or how not?
- Given that an earlier age of acquisition for particular words facilitated lexical access, how might you go about learning L2 vocabulary later in life most effectively?