Multiple choice quiz
Quizzes are available to test your understanding of the key concepts covered in each chapter. Click on the arrows next to each question to view the answer.
1. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as:
- The activation of C- and Ad-fibers in the periphery following exposure to a noxious stimulus
- Damage to peripheral nerve endings or aspects of the somatosensory system
- The psychological perception of a noxious stimulus, that is perceived as a threat to the self
- Activation of the mesolimbic-dopamine circuit in response to a noxious stimulus, be it neurogenic or psychogenic in nature
- An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
e. An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
2. Although pain can vary, and its manifestation can be used to help determine a diagnosis as well as the treatment and recovery process, there remains disagreement of what can be classified as pain. Despite the lack of consensus, the IASP considers several attributes of pain. Which of the following is not one of them?
- Body region affected
- The emotional response of the sufferer
- How long it persisted
- Its intensity and pattern of occurrence
- Potential processes involved in producing the pain
b. The emotional response of the sufferer
3. Hudson was cooking his breakfast when he forgot to turn off the stove top element. While cleaning up, he put his hand on the ceramic surface and the intense heat caused him to retract his hand. Though a minor burn, which of the following is the type of pain he endured?
4. Emma was cleaning the windows of her house when she fell off a ladder and broke her left leg. Though the bone has healed, Emma reports to the orthopedist that she experiences increased sensitivity in her left leg, with a burning sensation that has been spreading up to her thigh. The doctor would likely diagnose her as having which of the following pain conditions?
- Complex regional pain syndrome
- Systemic exertion intolerance disease
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Post-fracture allodynia
a. Complex regional pain syndrome
5. There is a lot of stigma surrounding individuals living with chronic pain despite it being common. In the UK, US and Canada, how common is chronic pain?
- 10% of the population
- 2 in every 100,000
- 20–30% of the population
- 40% of the population
- 1 in every 8 people
c. 20–30% of the population
6. There are a number of different issues regarding pain assessment that have diagnostic value. Which of the following was not considered one of them?
- Subjective appraisals of pain are not consistent across individuals
- Subjective appraisal of pain varies across cultures
- The context to which pain is assessed
- As individuals age, they are more reluctant to say they are in pain
- There are many different types of pain
d. As individuals age, they are more reluctant to say they are in pain
7. Though there are a number of measures to assess the severity of pain, which of the following assessment tools has been shown to be a reliable measure of pain?
- A Visual Pain Ladder (VPL)
- A Visual Analogue Thermometer (VAT)
- The Subjective Measure of Pain (SMP)
- Pain Likert Scale (PLS)
- The Choinière Assessment of Pain (CAN)
b. A Visual Analogue Thermometer (VAT)
8. The thought of living with chronic pain may elicit depressive symptoms, and may impede responses to antidepressant medications. As well, diminished depressive symptoms following treatment among individuals with chronic pain results in enhanced treatment outcomes. What does this suggest regarding mood and managing chronic pain?
- Antidepressants affect regions associated with both physical and emotional pain
- The importance of mood in managing chronic pain
- Antidepressants cause inhibition of interneurons in the dorsal-root ganglia of the spinal tract
- Chronic pain results from damage to spinal nerves, whereas depression is associated with disturbances in the brain
- Increased activation of emotional centers also activates regions associated with pain
b. The importance of mood in managing chronic pain
9. Chronic pain is not limited to adults; infants and children are also susceptible. What is the most common chronic pain complaint of children and adolescents?
- Stomach pain
- Back pain
10. While out on a day trip with his family, Louis and his parents were in a car crash that resulted in him experiencing a bad case of whiplash. Following the trauma of the event, Louis always complains of neck issues, though doctors confirmed no lasting damage had been done. From the text, what does this suggest about chronic pain?
- The trauma of the event caused lasting changes in Louis’ personality, resulting in increased sensitivity to pain
- General practitioners are not well suited to diagnose issues related to neck vertebrae
- Louis likely has chronic inflammation of the meninges, resulting in his chronic pain
- As his whiplash was poorly treated, Louis has permanent damage to his neck vertebrae
- Louis suffers from histrionic personality disorder, and is only complaining to get attention
a. The trauma of the event caused lasting changes in Louis’ personality, resulting in increased sensitivity to pain