Chapter 11 – Cohesion: Grammar at the level of the text

Consider the following statements and click to reveal the answer.

1. Cohesive references can be made to other parts of the text in two ways. Define these.


The two ways in which cohesive references can be made to other parts of the text are:

  • Anaphorical references – these refer readers back to something already mentioned.

  • Cataphorical references – these point the reader forwards and are often used for dramatic effect/to heighten suspense.

2. Name three types of reference tie.


The three types of reference tie are personal, demonstrative and comparative.

3. What is substitution?


Substitution is where a word, phrase or clause is substituted in a following sentence for one with a similar grammatical function rather than repeating the original.

4. What is ellipsis?


Ellipsis is where words are omitted rather than having an inelegant repetition – the reader supplies these to make sense of the sentence.

5. Explain the four types of conjunction


The four types of conjunction are:

  • Additive conjunctions – these add on a clause/sentence as if it were additional information or an afterthought.

  • Adversative conjunctions – these draw a contrast between the clause/sentence that they introduce/are contained in and the preceding clause/sentence.

  • Causal conjunctions – these make a link of cause or consequence between two clauses or sentences.

  • Temporal conjunctions – these make a time link, usually of a sequential nature.

6. What is lexical cohesion?


Lexical cohesion is where two words in a text are semantically related in terms of their meaning, either by reiteration or collocation.