Multiple Choice Questions
1. What did Galton argue was the indicator of intelligence?
- intelligence tests
- percept–reality distinction
- sensory discrimination
- the size of the brain
2. What spurred the development of Binet’s intelligence test?
- the French Revolution
- the French government’s aim to develop the first intelligence test
- the French government’s aim to develop a eugenic society
- the French government’s aim to identify children who are less able
3. The reporting of which uncomfortable ‘fact’ resulted from Yerkes’ mass measurement of IQ during the First World War?
- IQ measures are unreliable and can result in incorrect labelling of individuals
- the average citizen of the USA had an IQ score equivalent to someone with learning difficulties
- the average citizen of the USA had an IQ score higher than the average score of people in Europe
- the average citizen of the USA had an IQ score lower than the average score of people in Europe
4. What does IQ, the numerical measure of intelligence given by the performance in an intelligence test, stand for?
- intelligence quota
- irrelevant questions
- intelligence quotient
- intelligence questions
5. The idea of selective breeding to diminish undesirable genetics from gene pools to prevent them from being inherited through generations is referred to as what?
- natural selection
- ethnic cleansing
- survival of the fittest
6. Spearman’s finding that one person’s results on a variety of different cognitive tests tend to be consistent with each other is referred to as
- positive manifold
- positive interrelation
- positive correlation
- positive intelligence
7. What statistical test did Spearman develop and use to assess whether intelligence is underpinned by one or many factors?
- multivariate analysis
- analysis of variance
- factor analysis
8. What was Binet’s criticism of Spearman’s perspective on intelligence?
Different individuals could obtain ______ scores, which may be reflected in ______ types of abilities.
- identical, different
- different, identical
- average, higher-order
- higher-order, average
9. How many mental abilities did Thurstone suggest constituted intelligence?
10. Those supporting the existence of a uniting ‘g factor’ underpinning intelligence, by implication, also believe
- intelligence is predominantly hereditary and can be measured psychometrically
- intelligence is predominantly environmentally determined and is mutable
- intelligence is changeable and not related to environment or heredity
- intelligence is multifaceted and not measurable by a single indicator
11. What term is given to a group of instruments that have been developed for measuring mental characteristics?
- psychoanalytic tests
- psychosomatic tests
- psychometric tests
- psychopathological tests
12. What is a key criticism of instruments that may be used to measure intelligence?
- these instruments cannot be standardized
- these instruments have no discriminatory power
- these instruments are not subjected to rigorous testing
- these instruments cannot capture all types of intelligence
13. What is the Flynn effect?
- the average IQ score of people is slowly but steadily going down over time
- the average IQ score of people is slowly but steadily going up over time
- an individual’s IQ score can be used to predict his/her future income
- people with high IQ scores have been shown to be happier than people with low IQ scores
14. The systematic bias of early military tests identified White Americans as having what mental age?
15. The average IQ score for a population will be
- usually around 100
- slightly higher each time it is tested
- slightly lower each time it is tested
- 100 by definition
16. Which of the following is NOT one of Gardner’s intelligences?
- emotional intelligence
- linguistic intelligence
- musical intelligence
- spatial intelligence
17. Shakeshaft et al.’s (2015) study noted that there was a ‘clear familial effect’ for high intelligence. This was put down to
- environmental factors
- genetic factors
- a combination of environmental and genetic factors
- experimental confounding factors
18. Salthouse (2009) noted that IQ peaks during what period of life?
- between the ages of 10 and 13
- between the end of adolescence and the early twenties
- in the mid-thirties
- between the ages of 40 and 50
19. Which of the following can negatively affect measures of intelligence?
- substance use
- sleep disorders
- all of these
20. Higher intelligence appears to correlate with which of the following?
- living longer
- having a diagnosis of ADHD
- having a diagnosis of anxiety or other mood disorders
- all of these