Multiple Choice Questions
1. Ivan Pavlov is thought to have predominantly used which of the following stimuli to condition dogs?
- electric shocks
- a bell
- lights and tapping sounds
- a recording of Mozart’s Clarinet Quintet in A major
2. The ‘Law of Effect’ refers to which of the following?
- every action has an equal and opposite reaction
- the legal prohibition of ineffective psychological treatments
- the concept that unsuccessful behaviour often leads to fruitless repetition in an attempt to produce a different outcome
- the concept that the consequence of a successful behaviour is that it is more likely to occur in similar circumstances in future
3. The term ‘behaviourism’ was first coined by
- Francis Crick
- Edward Lee Thorndike
- John Watson
- Sherlock Holmes
4. Which of the following is a central theme of behaviourism?
- human behaviour can be manipulated using food
- the majority of behaviour is learnt and not innate
- the majority of behaviour is innate and not learnt
- genetics has the strongest influence on human behaviour
5. Which of the following did B. F. Skinner use as one experimental application of operant conditioning?
- he trained pigeons to operate missile guidance systems
- he trained mice to perform simple calculus operations
- he trained dogs to play short tunes on a series of eight bells
- he trained chimpanzees to make moderately palatable cups of tea
6. Which of the following is NOT given as a criticism of behaviourism?
- it ignores the fact that humans are able to learn from others in a social capacity
- it reduces humans to stimulus–response machines
- it ignores the influence of astrological factors
- it ignores the fact that humans are able to think and reflect on their behaviours
7. Which of the following could be considered to be the result of indirect learning?
- avoiding shellfish because last time you ate some, you vomited
- turning off the television when you see Piers Morgan because you know he makes you angry
- solving a Rubik’s Cube in under a minute after months of practice
- walking around a patch of ice you just saw someone slip over on
8. ‘Self-efficacy’ refers to
- the ability to modify one’s own behaviour
- a belief in one’s own ability to succeed
- the level of general skill a person has
- a belief in one’s own self-worth
9. Sailer et al. (2005) described the stages of learning a complex visuomotor skill. Which of the following is NOT one of those stages?
- the skill refinement stage
- the incremental improvement stage
- the exploratory stage
- the skill acquisition stage
10. Gamification refers to
- incorporating game-like elements to otherwise non-game activities to increase learning
- the increasing tendency for dumbing-down of learning
- the increasing proliferation of gaming apps on mobile devices
- the treatment of otherwise-bland meat (such as intensively reared chicken) to improve its flavour