Chapter Summary

We have now covered a variety of perspectives on thought. In the problem-solving section, we looked at Newell and Simon’s (1972) influential theory of problem-solving and then saw how this theory has influenced subsequent ones, not only the ACT–R theory (e.g. Anderson, 2007) but also contemporary theories of insight problem-solving. We also looked at different types of reasoning (probabilistic, deductive and inductive) and illustrated how and why we can find reasoning about the world difficult. You have been provided with many fundamental areas of thought, and knowledge of these areas will be invaluable to you, not only for comprehending the basics, but also if you now seek to explore further information in these areas.