Recommended Readings


  • American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, 377–402.
  • Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 13–94.
  • Neville, H. A., & Awad, G. H. (2014). Why racial color-blindness is myopic. American Psychologist, 69, 313–314.
  • Nguyen, H.-H. D., & Ryan, A. M. (2008). Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 6, 1314–1334.
  • Nigatu, H. (2013, December 9). Twenty-one racial microaggressions you hear on a daily basis [Web log post]. Retrieved from
  • Planas, R. (2013, November 20). Latino activists want Texas schools to address ‘institutionalized racism.’ Retrieved from


  • Milchan, A., Grisham, J., Nathanson, M., Lowry, H. (Producers), & Schumacher, J. (Director). (1996). A time to kill [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.
  • Okuefuna, D. (Producer), & Tickell, P. (Director). (2007). Racism: A history [Documentary]. United Kingdom: BBC Four.