Recommended Readings



Transgender Films (Carroll et al., 2002; Singh, Boyd, & Whitman, 2010)

  1. Paris Is Burning (Livingston, 1991)
  2. Ma Vie En Rose (Berliner, 1997)
  3. The Brandon Teena Story (Muska & Olafsdottir, 1998)
  4. Boys Don’t Cry (Pierce, 1999)
  5. Outlaw (Lebow, 1994)
  6. Normal (Anderson, 2003)
  7. Southern Comfort (Davis, 2001)
  8. TransAmerics (Tucker, 2005)
  9. TransGeneration (2005)

Periodicals for Exploring the Culture of Transgender People

  1. Gendertrash
  2. Transgender Tapestry
  3. Chrysalis Quarterly

Prevailing Models of LGB Identity Development

Cass (1979)

Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.

Coleman (1981/1982)

Developmental stages of the coming out process. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 31–43.

Grace (1992)

Affirming lesbian and gay adulthood. In N. J. Woodman (Ed.), Lesbian and gay lifestyles: A guide for counseling and education (pp. 33–47). New York, NY: Irvington.

Ritter and Tendrup (2002)

Handbook of affirmative psychotherapy with gay men and lesbians. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Troiden (1979)

Becoming homosexual: A model of gay identity acquisition. Psychiatry, 42, 362–373.

LGB Topics and Relevant Literature


Alden, H. L., & Parker, K. F. (2005). Gender role ideology, hate crimes and homophobia: Linking attitudes to micro-level anti-gay attitudes and hate crimes. Deviant Behavior, 26(4), 321–343.

*Smith, I., Oades, L. G., & McCarthy, G. (2012). Homophobia to heterosexism: Constructs in need of re-visitation. Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 8(1), 34–44. *Outlines all definitions of homophobia and heterosexism from 1960 to 2012

Identity Development

Bedard, K. K., & Marks, A. K. (2010). Current psychological perspectives on adolescent lesbian identity development. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 14(1), 16–25.

Comeau, D. L. (2012). Label-first sexual identity development: An in-depth case study of women who identify as bisexual before having sex with more than one gender. Journal of Bisexuality, 12(3), 321–346.

Dickey, l. m., Burnes, T. R., & Singh, A. A. (2012). Sexual identity development of female-to-male transgender individuals: A grounded theory inquiry. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 6(2), 118–138.

Dillon, F. R., Worthington, R. L., & Moradi, B. (2011). Sexual identity as a universal process. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (Vols. 1–2, pp. 649–670). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.

Olive, J. L. (2012). Reflections on the life histories of today’s LGBQ postsecondary students. Journal of LGBT Youth, 9(3), 247–265.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (2011). Identity development among sexual-minority youth. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (Vols. 1–2, pp. 671–689). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.

Shapiro, D., Rios, D., & Stewart, A. J. (2010). Conceptualizing lesbian sexual identity development: Narrative accounts of socializing structures and individual decisions and actions. Feminism & Psychology, 20(4), 491–510.

Telingator, C. J., & Woyewodzic, K. T. (2011). Sexual minority identity development. Psychiatric Times, 28(12), 39–42.

Coming-Out Process

Bates, D. (2010). Once-married African-American lesbians and bisexual women: Identity development and the coming-out process. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(2), 197–225.

Dunlap, A. A. (2011). Changes in the coming out process over time (Doctoral dissertation).

George, S. (2011). Blogging bisexuals and the coming-out process. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(2/3), 320–328.

Gragg, R. A. (2012). Working with sexual minority youth: Coming out. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 28(10), 1–6.

Grov, C., Bimbi, D. S., Nanín, J. E., & Parsons, J. T. (2006). Race, ethnicity, gender, and generational factors associated with the coming-out process among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. Journal of Sex Research, 43(2), 115–121.

Matthews, C. H., & Salazar, C. F. (2012). An integrative empowerment model for helping lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth negotiate the coming-out process. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 6(2), 96–117.

Zamboni, B. D., Robinson, B. E., & Bockting, W. O. (2011). HIV status and coming out among African American gay and bisexual men. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(1), 74–84.

Lifestyle Issues (e.g., LGB individuals in heterosexual relationships)

Buxton, A. P. (2001). Writing our own script: How bisexual men and their heterosexual wives maintain their marriages after disclosure. Journal of Bisexuality, 1, 155–189.

Higgins, D. J. (2002). Gay men from heterosexual marriages: Attitudes, behaviors, childhood experiences, and reasons for marriage. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 15–34.

Family of Origin Issues

Dahlheimer, D., & Feigal, J. (1994). Community as family: The multiple-family contexts of gay and lesbian clients. In C. H. Huber (Ed.), Transitioning from individual to family counseling (pp. 63–74). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Matthews, C. R., & Lease, S. H. (2000). Focus on lesbian, gay, and bisexual families. In R. M. Perez, K. A. DeBord, & K. J. Bieschke (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (pp. 249–273). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (2001). “Mom, Dad, I’m gay”: How families negotiate coming out. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Couple Relationships

*Ard, K., & Makadon, H. (2011). Addressing intimate partner violence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(8), 930–933. *Recent literature has focused on LGBT couples and domestic violence.

Fingerhut, A. W., Riggle, E. B., & Rostosky, S. (2011). Same-sex marriage: The social and psychological implications of policy and debates. Journal of Social Issues, 67(2), 225–241.

Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R. W., Gross, J. J., Fredrickson, B. L., McCoy, K., Rosenthal, L., . . . Yoshimoto, D. (2003). Correlates of gay and lesbian couples’ relationship satisfaction and relationship dissolution. Journal of Homosexuality, 45, 23–44.

Matthews, C. R., & Lorah, P. (2012). Domestic violence in same-sex relationships. In S. H. Dworkin & M. Pope (Eds.), Casebook for counseling lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered persons and their families (pp. 307–317). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Rothblum, E. D., Balsam, K. F., & Solomon, S. E. (2011). The longest ‘legal’ U.S. same-sex couples reflect on their relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 67(2), 302–315.


Bigner, J. J. (1996). Working with gay fathers: Development, postdivorce parenting, and therapeutic issues. In J. Laird & R. J. Green (Eds.), Lesbian and gay couples and families: A handbook for therapists (pp. 370–403). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

*Byrn, M. P., & Holcomb, M. L. (2012). Same-sex divorce in a DOMA state. Family Court Review, 50(2), 214–221. *Divorce is just as tricky to navigate for the courts as marriage is with regard to same-sex couples.

Fitzgerald, B. (1999). Children of lesbian and gay parents: A review of the literature. Marriage and Family Review, 29, 57–75.

Goldberg, A., & Kuvalanka, K. (2012). Marriage (in)equality: The perspectives of adolescents and emerging adults with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents. Journal of Marriage & Family, 74(1), 34–52.

Hart, J. E., Mourot, J. E., & Aros, M. (2012). Children of same-sex parents: In and out of the closet. Educational Studies, 38(3), 277–281.

Johnson, S. M., & O’Connor, E. (2001). The gay baby boom: The psychology of gay parenthood. New York: New York University Press.

Johnson, S. M., & O’Connor, E. (2002). For lesbian parents: Your guide to helping your family grow up happy, healthy, and proud. New York: New York University Press.

Lev, A. (2010). How queer!: The development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families. Family Process, 49(3), 268–290.

*Mallon, G. P. (2011). The home study assessment process for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender prospective foster and adoptive families. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 7(1/2), 9–29. *Many same-sex couples decide to adopt versus using a donor, thus parenting issues include adoption-related concerns. Unfortunately, same-sex couples are often only allowed to adopt children considered to be “less desirable” (e.g., ethnic minority). Their newly created family structure must then navigate issues related to transracial identities.

Regnerus, M. (2012). Parental same-sex relationships, family instability, and subsequent life outcomes for adult children: Answering critics of the new family structures—Study with additional analyses. Social Science Research, 41(6), 1367–

Rosenfeld, M. J. (2010). Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school. Demography, 47(3), 755–775.

Religious and Sexual Identity Conflicts

Anderton, C. K. (2011). A review of the religious identity/sexual orientation identity conflict literature: Revisiting Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 5(3/4), 259.

Dahl, A., & Galliher, R. V. (2012). The interplay of sexual and religious identity development in LGBTQ adolescents and young adults: A qualitative inquiry. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 12(3), 217–246.

Green, M. S., Murphy, M. J., & Blumer, M. C. (2010). Marriage and family therapists’ comfort working with lesbian and gay male clients: The influence of religious practices and support for lesbian and gay male human rights. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(10), 1258–1273.

Wentz, J. M., & Wessel, R. D. (2011). The intersection of gay and Christian identities on Christian college campuses. Journal of College and Character, 12(2), 1–6.

Workplace Issues

Davis, D. (2009). Transgender issues in the workplace: HRD’s newest challenge/ opportunity. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(1), 109–120.

Godfrey, D. (2012). Three legs on the ground: Retirement income essentials for LGBT adults. Generations, 36(2), 81–87.

Lyons, H. Z., Brenner, B. R., & Lipman, J. J. (2010). Patterns of career and identity interference for lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Journal of Homosexuality,

57(4), 503–524.

Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: Antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 6, 1244–1261.

Rostosky, S. S., & Riggle, E. D. B. (2002). “Out” at work: The relation of actor and partner workplace policy and internalized homophobia to disclosure status. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 411–419.