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A good example of voluntary commitments is Business for Social Responsibility, a global organization that aims to help its members be successful in a sustainable way and to respect the ethical values of stakeholders and the environment.

The circular economy, advocated by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, addresses these unnecessary resource losses. Household names such as Unilever, Cisco, Philips and Renault are some of the Foundation’s global partners. Through more recycling and design of products so that they last longer, can be repaired and upgraded, reused or resold and their materials used in remanufacture, waste can be minimized.

In The Conversation, Suzanne Benn and Damien Giurco offer an example of the sort of switch that might be involved, such as for businesses to sell services instead of products  – for example, selling ‘hours behind the wheel’ rather than selling cars, which is what happens with car-share schemes such as GoGet, Hertz 24/7 and GreenShareCar.

Serge Latouche argues that the pursuit of economic growth causes inequality and injustice to increase.

Certain countries, including the USA, engage in practices that are very close to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. The report on the use of torture in Guantánamo Bay prison provided evidence that the USA interprets Article 5 (of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights) differently.