Explore chapter themes further with these carefully selected weblinks

Whereas the Cold War, the world wars or the Age of Empires shaped previous generations of managers and organizations, the contemporary scene is shaped by globalization and reactions against it.

Céline Abecassis-Moedas and Valérie Moatti (2018) argue shopping for fashion is a physical and emotional experience that digital technologies are intensifying rather than entirely replacing. 

In a report entitled Who Pays for Our Common Wealth? United Voice (2014), a trade union, collaborated with the Tax Justice Network to research what Australia’s 200 largest companies pay in tax. The report’s analysis demonstrates large amounts of very effective and efficient tax minimization occurring for global companies. 

Big corporates are gaming one nation's taxpayers against another's: we need a global deal to make them pay their way.

Citizens usually cannot choose where they pay taxes: companies often can and so seek the lowest tax regimes in which to establish tax liability.

Recently, there have been two factors that have further influenced the development of the MBA: first, the introduction of ranking systems for business schools; and, second, the growing pressure towards, and internationalization of, formal accreditation systems.

An excellent source of information and analysis is the online journal Globalization. The publisher, Polity Press, maintains a website supporting several of its books in the Global Transformations series. Again, there are many links that can be easily accessed through this page.

Greenpeace created an anti-McDonald’s website, developed by supporters of two British activists, who were sued by McDonald’s for distributing leaflets denouncing the corporation’s low wages, advertising practices, involvement in deforestation, cruel treatment of animals, and patronage of an unhealthy diet. The three-year libel trial ended with the judge defending some of McDonald’s claims against the activists while substantiating some criticisms. The case created unprecedented adverse publicity for McDonald’s and, in retrospect, the libel action could hardly be seen to have done the corporation any good.

In Africa, prior to colonization, indigenous people controlled 80 per cent of the territory. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, called by Bismarck, the European powers created geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. The new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions. Nearly all of Africa’s contemporary problems can be seen to have their roots in this initial map-making.

Imperialism also operates in economic, political and cultural guises and is operationalized through different kinds of power: institutional power (agencies such as the IMF, WTO and the World Bank), economic power (of corporations and nation-states) and discursive power that constructs and describes uncontested notions of ‘development’.