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In some occasions, a skilful leader often serves people and organizations best by following the innovation, inspiration or interpretation of one of the followers; on another occasion, a leader may lead best by subordinating personal attitudes to those of superiors, peers or subordinates in order to retain influence or carry a decision.
One of the oldest ideas in motivation is the Opponent Process Theory of motivation.
Milgram designed a study in which people were asked to give various levels of electric shocks to individuals (who unbeknown to the participants were actors in the experiment). The participants thought the experiment was about punishment and learning; however, after administering mild shocks to the actors, Milgram asked participants to give extremely high, lethal shocks to people. Over two-thirds of respondents were willing to give the highest dose, even when the participants themselves appeared emotionally distressed.