1 Read – Chapters, Journal Articles, and Research Blogs: Find top research articles to cite and enrich your reading with your ready-made bibliography of qualitative research from SAGE books, journals, and other credible sources. Use the discussion questions online to practice thinking critically about research.

14.1 Data analysis

For a helpful guide to data analysis visit:

Given, L. M. (2008). Data Analysis. The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (Vols. 1-0). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Q. From what you have read, what keywords would you use to describe data analysis?

14.2 Qualidata

Here you can visit the qualitative data archive at Essex University.

14.3 Grounded theory

This paper is authored by Anselm Strauss, one of the founders of the Grounded Theory approach. It offers insights into how to develop substantive and formal theories from qualitative data:

Strauss A. Notes on the Nature and Development of General Theories. Qualitative Inquiry. 1995;1(1):7-18.

Q. How do substantive and formal theories differ from other theoretical perspectives from qualitative data?

14.4 Analysing ethnographic data

To read my study, visit:

Silverman, David. (2008). The child as a social object: Down's Syndrome children in a paediatric cardiology clinic. Sociology of Health & Illness. 3. 254–274. 10.1111/1467-9566.ep10486744.

14.5 Narrative analysis

Want to learn more about narrative analysis? See the Purdue University website for more information about narratology.

Q. What is the difference between narrative analysis and thematic analysis? 

14.6 Narrative analysis case study

In this paper, Liz Stanley considers how you can use a narrative inquiry approach for investigating large-scale complex social phenomena, in this case, connected with the rise of nationalism in South Africa and women’s role in it:

Stanley L. Madness to the method? Using a narrative methodology to analyse large-scale complex social phenomena. Qualitative Research. 2008;8(3):435-447.

Q. What are some characteristics of a narrative interview?

14.7 Theorizing interview data

For a discussion of naturalist versus constructionist treatments of interview data see Silverman (2017).

Q. Do you think it is possible to ‘get behind’ moral tales in interviews and is this a desirable outcome?

Q. Which approach would you take to interview data?

14.8 Ethnographic field research

For details of Robert Emerson’s books on field research, visit his faculty page.

Q. When should you choose to use field research?

14.9 Grounded theory

Visit the Grounded Theory Institute website to go deeper into grounded theory and what it means.

Q. What is grounded theory and when is it implemented?

14.10 How to transcribe

Emmanuel A. Schegloff’s training module on transcription symbols can be found here.

Q. What are temporal and sequential relationships?

14.11 CA and DA

For resources on CA go to the EM/CA wiki.

For resources on DA go to this National Centre for Research Methods webpage.

14.12 Analysing conversational data

This dataset demonstrates a conversation analysis approach to a study on interactions via video-mediated communication. The author explains how they gathered, transcribed and analysed naturally occurring data from video calls between long-distance couples:

Rintel, S. (2015). Conversation analysis of video-mediated communication: Interactional repair of distortion in long-distance couples’ video calls (Lewis, J. Ed.). In SAGE Research Methods Datasets Part 1. SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Q. What method would you use to analyse this data?

14.13 Using visual data

In this paper, Dawn Manny discusses how she used visual data to explore and represent the everyday experiences of working-class mothers and daughters residing on a peripheral social housing estate.

Mannay D. Making the familiar strange: can visual research methods render the familiar setting more perceptible? Qualitative Research. 2010;10(1):91-111.

Q. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using visual data?

14.14 Analysing visual data

For an online journal debate on visual methods, which includes Konecki’s paper, go to FQS Vol. 9 No. 3 (2008): Visual Methods.

Q. What is the documentary method?