Multiple Choice Questions
1. Nineteenth-century organisations warning of the dangers of alcohol are known as ______.
- temperance societies
- abolitionist societies
- puritan societies
- prohibitionist societies
2. In the UK, one ‘unit’ is assumed to equal ______ of alcohol.
- 2 g
- 4 g
- 6 g
- 8 g
3. It is claimed the light drinking can have which of the following beneficial effects?
- improves sleep quality
- reduces risk of ischaemic heart disease
- leads to better stress management
- controls aggressiveness
4. Which of the following lines of evidence is most often put forward as showing that drinking behaviour is an inherited characteristic?
- Some people just cannot stop drinking once they start.
- Heavy drinking runs in families.
- DNA studies have shown that there are specific genes for both alcoholism and teetotalism.
- Adopted children have similar drinking habits as their biological parents.
5. How has the concept of gradient of reinforcement been applied in explanations of problem drinking using operant conditioning concepts?
- When people first try alcohol they do not usually find it pleasurable, but it gradually gets more enjoyable on subsequent occasions.
- The effects of alcohol wear off in a fairly short time so that more and more is needed to maintain the pleasurable effect.
- People often find that they feel bad soon after alcohol has left the bloodstream, and they need more alcohol to counteract these effects.
- The pleasurable effects of alcohol occur rapidly after consumption and have a greater effect on subsequent drinking behaviour than the unpleasant effects, such as hangovers, which occur much later.
6. According to social learning theorists what personality trait confers protection against peer group pressure to drink excessively?
- self esteem
7. What has been shown to be the most effective policy for reducing overall levels of alcohol consumption in the general population?
- increasing taxation of alcohol
- educational initiatives in schools and colleges
- publicising harmful effects of alcohol
- requiring alcohol manufacturers to put sensible drinking slogans on their products
8. According to the World Health Organisation (2013), what should be the role of the drinks industry in the formulation of alcohol policies?
- It should have no role at all.
- Based on knowledge gained for market research, it should have an advisory role but not be allowed to make specific recommendations.
- Alcohol taxation provides a large contribution to government funds, so the industry is entitled to make some contribution to the formulation of alcohol policy.
- The drinks industry has good reasons to promote sensible drinking, so it should have an equal partnership with governments in determining policies.
9. On average throughout the world, which is the most widely used approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence?
- hospital-based facilities and private clinics offering medical treatment for withdrawal symptoms, together with counselling
- Alcoholics Anonymous and similar self-help organisations promoting total lifelong abstinence
- individual and group psychotherapy
- cognitive behaviour therapy, motivational interviewing and mindfulness based relapse prevention
10. When they reviewed the efficacy of different treatment approaches for alcohol problems, which did Miller and Wilbourne (2002) consider to be the one best supported by the evidence?
- motivational interviewing
- counselling and psychotherapy
- twelve-step facilitation programme (Alcoholics Anonymous)
- cognitive behaviour therapy