Multiple Choice Questions
1. In humans, each cell normally contains ______ of chromosomes.
- 11 pairs
- 23 pairs
- 32 pairs
- 46 pairs
2. ______ explained genetic disorders such as alkaptonuria and albinism.
- Recessive inheritance has
- Dominant genes have
- X chromosomes
- Y chromosomes
3. It is currently estimated that there are ______ human protein-coding genes although this estimate may be reduced over time.
4. The ______ is the set of observable characteristics and is the sum of genetic and environmental effects.
- both genotype and phenotype
- neither genotype or phenotype
5. Nature is more important for ______ differences, while nurture has greater influence on ______ differences.
- structural and anatomical; psychological and social
- psychological and social; structural and anatomical
- structural and psychological; anatomical and social
- social and anatomical; psychological and structural
6. In genome-wide association studies, known SNPs explain ______ of the variation in body mass index despite the evidence of greater than 50% heritability from twin and family studies.
- only 5%
- less than 1%
- only 13%
- less than 2%
7. The epigenetic inheritance system has been described as ______ (Mayr and Provine, 1980).
- genotype inheritance
- soft inheritance
- RNA inheritance
- hard inheritance
8. ______ has been described as the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of different physiological or morphological states in response to different environmental conditions during development (West-Eberhard, 1989).
- Fetal plasticity
- The fetal origins hypothesis
- Developmental plasticity
- Environmental plasticity
9. Research from Moshe Szyf and colleagues has provided significant findings on the epigenetic influences of prenatal maternal stress. This work has been labelled ______.
- developmental epigenetics
- social epigenetics
- fetal epigenetics
- maternal epigenetics
10. Intergenerational transmission to offspring can occur as a result of parental exposures to ______.
- natural disasters
- all of these