Chapter Outlines

By the end of this chapter, you will:

  • Understand the interacting genetic and environmental processes that take place in the transition from the gametes to a fully functioning adult human
  • Understand what is meant by epigenetics
  • Understand that children of mothers who are exposed to poverty, hunger, poor diet, smoking, stress, war or violence prenatally are prone to epigenetic influences on their offspring’s later well-being
  • Show awareness of the developmental model of the origins of chronic disease suggested by Barker as an alternative approach to disease prevention
  • View early life development as a critical stage and understand the nurturing care required for optimal outcomes