Multiple Choice Questions

1. In the U.S. in 2012, about ______ people had one or more chronic health conditions. (Ward, Schiller & Goodman, 2014).

  1. 98 million
  2. 117 million
  3. 150 million
  4. 172 million

Answer: B

2. Genetic factors and diet-related behaviours are two primary determinants of diabetes but the causes of ME/CFS ______.

  1. are largely psychosomatic
  2. are primarily due to poor diet
  3. remain a complete mystery
  4. none of these

Answer: C

3. In ______, blood glucose homeostasis ceases to function because the beta cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed.

  1. type 1 diabetes mellitus
  2. type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. gestational diabetes
  4. both type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes 

Answer: A

4. Ali, Stone and Peters et al. (2006) found the prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetes patients was ______ higher than those without diabetes.

  1. 3%
  2. 6%
  3. 9%
  4. 12%

Answer: C

5. Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome has also been named ______.

  1. post-viral fatigue syndrome
  2. systematic exertion intolerance disease
  3. chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome
  4. all of these

Answer: D

6. CDC (2017) suggests that of the one to four million Americans who have ME/CFS, less than ______ have been diagnosed.

  1. 2%
  2. 5%
  3. 10%
  4. 20%

Answer: D

7. According to the ______, ME/CFS patients are alleged to have ‘unhelpful cognitions’ and ‘dysfunctional beliefs’ that their symptoms are caused by an organic disease.

  1. Impaired Belief Theory
  2. Dysfunctional Belief Theory
  3. Maladjusted Belief Theory
  4. Inhibited Belief Theory

Answer: B

8. The PACE trial is a textbook example of ______.

  1. the top-down research approach
  2. bottom up research approach
  3. qualitative research approach
  4. carefully designed research approach

Answer: A

9. Which of these are errors made in the PACE trial?

  1. Failure to obtain fully informed consent after non-disclosure of conflicts of interest.
  2. Changing the primary outcomes of the trial after receiving the raw data.
  3. Changing entry criteria midway through the trial.
  4. Repeatedly informing participants in the GET and CBT groups that the therapies could help them get better.
  5. all of these

Answer: E

10. Velleman et al. (2016) explored the experiences of those whose sibling had ME/CFS and found that ______.

  1. siblings had higher levels of depression than adolescents of the same age from a normative sample; however, anxiety and quality-of-life were similar
  2. siblings had lower levels of quality of life than adolescents of the same age from a normative sample; however, anxiety and depression were similar
  3. siblings had higher levels of anxiety than adolescents of the same age from a normative sample; however, depression and quality-of-life were similar
  4. none of these

Answer: C