Broaden your understanding of chapter topics and link to real conversations about social research.

Types of Data: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/Ratio Statistics Help

Levels of Measurement

Histogram and Frequency Table – SPSS

YouTube contains numerous demonstrations of how to do things with SPSS. If you search for the procedure you want (e.g. ‘frequencies’ or ‘pie chart’ or ‘boxplot’) and add ‘SPSS’ to the search term, you will find the help you need. Here are a few that are relevant to Chapter 20

Histogram and Frequency Table – SPSS

SPSS for Beginners 2a: Frequency Counts

SPSS for Beginners 2b: Descriptive Statistics and Z-scores

SPSS: Recoding Variables

SPSS Tutorials: Recoding an Interval-Level/Scale Variable into a New Categorical Variable

If you are using a different software package, for example, R, SAS, STATA or Excel, you can also find a great deal of help on the internet, by searching by the name of the software package and the procedure. For example, a search for ‘frequencies’ with the name of each of these software tools generates the following hits:

STATA Frequencies

SAS Frequencies

R Frequencies

Excel Frequencies