Broaden your understanding of chapter topics and link to real conversations about social research.

Hypothesis Tests, p-Value

Understanding the p-Value

Two-Way Tables

2 by 2 Table Analysis (Calculating Expected Values)

use in conjunction with

2 by 2 Table – Web Calculator

t-Test to Compare Two Groups using SPSS

Selecting Statistical Tests: A Decision Aid Tool

Online Statistical Calculators: Graphpad

Online Statistical Calculators: Vassar

Web Pages that Perform Statistical Calculations

YouTube contains numerous demonstrations of how to do things with SPSS. If you search for the procedure you want (e.g. ‘contingency tables’ or ‘chi square or ‘t-test’ or ‘scatterplot’) and add ‘SPSS’ to the search term, you will find the help you need. Here are some that are relevant to Chapter 21

Crosstabulation with SPSS

SPSS Tutorials: Cross-Tabulation and Chi-Square Statistic for Three Categorical (Nominal) Variables

t-Tests Using SPSS

Correlations in SPSS (Pearson’s r)

Pearson Correlation

If you are using a different software package, for example, R, SAS, STATA or Excel, you can also find a great deal of help on the internet, by searching by the name of the software package and the procedure. For example, a search for ‘correlation coefficient’ with the name of each of these software tools generates the following hits:

STATA Correlation Coefficient

SAS Correlation Coefficient

R Correlation Coefficient

Excel Correlation Coefficient